Blood glucose ranges are usually between 60 and 120 in a person with a normal metabolism. If a person has a metabolic dysfunction such as diabetes where the body either does not produce sufficient quantities of insulin or is resistant to the insulin produced the blood glucose ranges can swing wildly and at times can become so out of control as to be debilitating, sometimes even leading to coma or death. Prolonged, but less severe abnormal blood glucose ranges can damage the kidneys, liver, and even the heart, and can be a contributing factor to the development of glaucoma.
Glucose, which is the form of sugar that is primarily used by the body to power the cells, is found in the blood of everyone. In a normal person the pancreas releases insulin which causes the cells to allow glucose to pass through the cell membrane and be used by the cell. If the body does not produce enough insulin, or if the cells are resistant to the action of insulin the blood glucose ranges will not stay within normal parameters and the body will suffer the adverse effects mentioned above.
In cases where the body does not produce sufficient quantities of insulin the treatment consists of injecting doses of insulin subcutaneously into a fatty area of the body so that the glucose can be used by the cells instead of building up in the bloodstream. In cases where the cells have developed a resistance to the action of insulin oral medications are used to promote insulin production, though oftentimes injected insulin is still needed.
Insulin, whether produced by the body, of injected is the key to maintaining the correct blood glucose ranges. When blood glucose ranges are kept as normal as possible it greatly improves the overall health and quality of life for those afflicted with diabetes or other glucose related metabolic diseases.